Compound Sentences

1. “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.”

Diagram 14
A compound sentence—transitive,  Def.*
Heaven } Objects,
In the beginning—Adjunct of created,
The—Adjunct of heaven,
The—Adjunct of earth,
Words. Use. Class. Def.
In, expresses a relation of “created” and “beginning,” Prep, 12.
The, limits “beginning,” Adj., 9.
Beginning, object of relation expressed by “in,” Noun, 7.
God, agent of the action expressed by “created,” Noun, 7.
Created, expresses the action performed by “God,” Verb, 10.
The, limits “heaven,” Adj., 9.
Heaven, object of action expressed by “created,” Noun, 7.
And, connects “heaven” and “earth,” Conj., 13.
The, limits “earth,” Adj., 9.
Earth, object of action expressed by “created,” Noun, 7.
  1. He educated his daughter and his son, at great expense.
  2. Students require of the teacher, much instruction and some patience.
  3. We, at all times, seek our honor and our happiness.
  4. God, in the creation, has displayed his wisdom and his power.
  5. Men gather the tares and the wheat, with equal care.
  6. John loves his study and his play, with equal attachment.

* Let the pupil repeat these definitions.

The Lord uplifts his awful hand
And chains you to the shore.


Diagram 15

Compound sentence—transitive

Lord—Subject of “uplifts” and “chains.”
Uplifts } Predicates of “Lord.”
Hand—Object of “uplifts.”
You—Object of “chains.”
Adjuncts. The—Adjunct of “Lord.”
} Adjuncts of “hand.”
To the shore—Adjunct of “chains.”

Other examples, in which the Principal Parts are the same.

fistLet the pupil place in diagrams, the following sentences:

“He heard the king's command,
And saw that writing's truth.”
“For misery stole me at my birth,
And cast me helpless on the wild.”

“Then weave the chaplet of flowers and strew the beauties of nature about the grave.”
“They fulfilled the great law of labor in the letter, but broke it in the spirit.”

                               “That the page unfolds
And spreads us to the gaze of God and men.”
“Now twilight lets her curtain down,
And pins it with a star.”
“He marks, and in heaven's register enrolls,
The rise AND progress of each option there.”

REMARK.—The last example differs from the others. Let the pupil tell wherein.

Temperance and frugality promote health, and secure happiness.

Diagram 16

A compound sentence—transitive.
Temperance }Subjects of “promote” and “secure.”
} Predicates of  ≴temperance” and “frugality≵
Health—Object of “promote.”
Happiness—Object of “secure.”

NOTE.—If I say—“Temperance promotes health and frugality secures happiness,” I make two distinct sentences each “simple.” But the “and” may be taken from between “temperance” and “frugality,” and placed between “health” and “happiness,” and it remains a compound sentence. It will then read thus—“Temperance promotes, and frugality secures, health and happiness;”—and is thus construed:

Temperance—Subject of “promotes.”
Promotes—Predicate of “temperance.”
Frugality—Subject of “secures.”
Secures—Predicate of “frugality.”
Health } Objects of “secures“ and “promotes.”

“There youth and beauty tread the choral ring,
And shout their raptures to the cloudless skies.”
“Prayer only, and the penitential tear,
Can call her smiling down and fix her here.”—Cowper.

NOTE TO THE TEACHER.—The Author suggests that the Teacher give to each Pupil, a sentence to be placed in Diagram, and presented for inspection and criticism, at a subsequent recitation. It is believed that this practice, repeated every day, will be an agreeable and profitable exercise.


Diagram 17
“Wisdom and virtue elevate and ennoble man.”
“The toils and cares of life torment the restless mind.”*
“Passion degrades and brutalizes man.”†

*A compound sentence—transitive; having two subjects, one predicate, and one object.

} Subjects of “torment.”
Torment—Predicate of “toils [and] cares.”
Mind—Object of “torment.”

} Adjuncts of “toils and “cares.”
Of life
} Adjuncts of “mind.”

†A compound sentence—transitive—having one subject, two predicates, and one object.


Passion—Subject of “degrades and brutalizes.”
Degrades } Predicates of “Passion.”
Man—Object of “degrades and brutalizes.”

Miscellaneous Examples having their Principal Parts adapted to Diagram a, b, or c, Fig. 17.

“Pride and envy accompany and strengthen each other.”
“Illuminated Reason and regulated Liberty shall once more exhibit man in the image of his Maker.”
“Here Art and Commerce, with auspicious reign,
Once breathed sweet influence on the happy plain.”
“For Hopes too long delayed,
And Feelings blasted or betrayed,
Its fabled Bliss destroy.”
“Patience and perseverance will surmount or remove the most formidable difficulties.”
“Then Strife and Faction rule the day,
And Pride and Avarice throng the way;
Loose Revelry and Riot bold,
In freighted streets their orgies hold.”
“The hunter's trace and the dark encampments started the wild beasts from their lairs.”
“Thy praise the widow's sighs, and orphan's tears embalm”
“Their names, their years; spelled by the unlettered muse,
The place of fame and elegy supply.”—Grey.
“Hence, every state, to one loved blessing prone,
Conforms and models life to that alone.”
“Hope, like a cordial, innocent though strong,
Man's heart at once inspirits and serenes.”—Young
“For which we shunned and hated thee before.”
“By thus acting, we cherish and improve both.”
“When mighty Alfred's piercing soul
Pervades and regulates the whole.”
“Knowledge reaches, or may reach, every home.”
“Whose potent arm perpetuates existence or destroys.”
Hill and valley echo back their songs.
“He tossed not high his ready cap in air,
Nor lifted up his voice in servile shouts,
At sight of that great ruffian.”

Diagram 18Unnumbered systems, suns, and worlds, unite to worship thee.

A compound sentence—intransitive; containing three subjects and one predicate.


Systems, } Subjects of “ unite.”
Unite—Predicate of “ systems, suns, and worlds.”
Adjuncts. Unnumbered—Adjunct of “systems, suns, and worlds.”
To worship thee—Adjunct of “unite.”

“The lame, the blind, and the aged repose in hospitals.”